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美联储调查显示经济温和增长,关税导致成本上升

wuya 2019-11-28 14:46

 

华盛顿,11月27日(新华社)——美国联邦储备委员会周三公布的一项调查显示,从10月到11月中旬,美国经济“温和”增长,而零售商报告称关税导致成本上升。


美联储在最新的经济状况调查褐皮书(Beige Book)中表示:“多数地区报告称,消费者支出稳定增长,几个地区的汽车销售和旅游业出现增长。”褐皮书是根据美联储从12家地区储备银行收集的信息编制而成。


调查称:“在制造业,更多的地区报告称,与前一个时期相比,当前时期出现了扩张,尽管大多数地区继续没有增长。”


调查还显示,零售商报告的关税成本上升,企业普遍预期未来价格会上涨。


该调查称:“企业提高价格以弥补成本上升的能力仍然有限,但一些地区指出,受关税影响的企业更倾向于转嫁成本上升。”


在克利夫兰联邦地区,一家服装零售商减少了价格折扣的使用,以抵消关税带来的成本上升。相比之下,一家食品零售商表示,尽管关税增加了成本,但由于竞争激烈,该公司“不能一时兴起提价”。


芝加哥联邦储备银行地区的商业联系人报告称,零售价格“小幅上涨”,他们预计在未来12个月里,价格将“以略快的速度上涨”。


一位联系人表示,食品、家庭用品和服装零售商正在艰难地转嫁更高的成本;相反,另一位联系人指出,零售商继续提高价格,以反映更高的潜在和实现的关税,”调查显示。


调查显示,在里士满联储区(Richmond Fed district),几家零售商也报告称,关税提高了成本,损害了利润率。


从2018年2月到2019年9月,美国消费者和企业额外支付了380亿美元的关税据关税统计,中美贸易争端损害了美国反关税倡导组织Heartland。


“经济学家、分析师和各界专家一致认为,关税正在损害美国经济,”美国自由贸易组织(Americans for Free Trade)发言人乔纳森·戈尔德(Jonathan Gold)本月早些时候在一份声明中说。


“10月份,制造业连续第三个月放缓;农场破产正在增加;戈尔德说,他敦促美国政府与中国达成一项“取消所有关税”的最终协议。

 

WASHINGTON, Nov. 27 (Xinhua) -- The U.S. economy expanded "modestly" from October through mid-November while retailers reported higher costs resulting from tariffs, according to a Federal Reserve survey released on Wednesday.

 

"Most Districts reported stable to moderately growing consumer spending, and increases in auto sales and tourism were seen across several Districts," said the Fed in its latest survey on economic conditions, known as the Beige Book, based on information collected from its 12 regional reserve banks.

 

"In manufacturing, more Districts reported an expansion in the current period than the previous one, though the majority continued to experience no growth," the survey said.

 

The survey also showed that retailers reported higher costs from tariffs and firms generally expected higher prices going forward.

 

"Firms' ability to raise prices to cover higher costs remained limited, though a few Districts noted that companies affected by the tariffs were more inclined to pass on cost increases," the survey said.

 

In the Cleveland Fed district, a clothing retailer reduced the use of price discounting to offset higher costs resulting from tariffs. By contrast, a food retailer said that while tariffs had increased costs, the company "cannot raise prices on a whim" because of fierce competition.

 

Business contacts in the Chicago Fed district reported that retail prices "increased modestly" and they expected prices to "rise at a somewhat faster pace" over the next 12 months.

 

"One contact said that food, home goods, and apparel retailers were struggling to pass on higher costs; in contrast, another contact noted that retailers continued to raise prices to reflect higher potential and realized tariffs," the survey showed.

 

In the Richmond Fed district, several retailers also reported that tariffs were raising costs and hurting profit margins, according to the survey.

 

U.S. consumers and businesses paid an additional 38 billion U.S. dollars in tariffs from February 2018 to September 2019 due to U.S.-China trade disputes, according to Tariffs Hurt the Heartland, a U.S. anti-tariff advocacy group.

 

"Economists, analysts and experts across the board agree the tariffs are hurting the economy," Jonathan Gold, a spokesperson for Americans for Free Trade, which is a coalition of U.S. businesses, trade organizations and workers against tariffs, said in a statement earlier this month.

 

"The manufacturing industry slowed for the third month in a row in October; farm bankruptcies are on the rise; and business investment contracted for the second quarter in a row," Gold said, urging the U.S. government to reach a final deal with China that "removes all tariffs."

    来自: xinhua