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各国如何迎接区块链时代的到来?

wuya 2019-12-1 15:12

区块链是一种看不见摸不着的虚拟技术,却具有足以颠覆时代的力量。它的价值,不仅在于支撑虚拟货币一路前行,其影响正在溢出金融及科技领域,呈现出重塑世界、甚至有望能带领人类从信息互联网过渡到价值互联网的时代。

 

中共中央政治局10月24日就区块链技术发展现状和趋势进行第十八次集体学习。习近平总书记在主持学习时强调,区块链技术的集成应用在新的技术革新和产业变革中起着重要作用。我们要把区块链作为核心技术自主创新的重要突破口,明确主攻方向,加大投入力度,着力攻克一批关键核心技术,加快推动区块链技术和产业创新发展。

 

拥有区块链技术就能改变世界,各国都期待在区块链时代抢占先机。

 

各国将区块链上升到国家战略高度

 

区块链这场基于技术革命全球全产业的变革正在席卷各行业,各国已将区块链上升到国家战略高度。

 

2019年7月9日,美国参议院商业、科学和运输委员会批准了《区块链促进法》。该法案明确要求美国商务部为“区块链”建立标准定义,以及建立新的的法律框架,为未来新兴技术的应用提供指导和防范风险。《区块链促进法》得到了两党的支持,这证明了美国两个主要政党的成员都认识到区块链技术可以为美国和世界其他地区带来的价值,无论是通过防止税收欺诈,消除官僚主义还是减少浪费,以及如何使用技术来减少监管不确定性。

 

在颁布《区块链促进法案》后,美国商务部长威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)在商务部内建立了一个区块链工作组,工作组由联邦机构“跨部门”的成员以及来自与区块链技术有关的行业利益团体代表、学术机构、非营利组织和消费者权益倡导者的代表组成。他们的任务是在《区块链促进法》颁布后的一年内向国会提交报告。报告将包括对“区块链技术”定义的建议,并在分布式账本技术的研究中提出潜在应用范围建议,包括可提高美国联邦机构效率的区块链技术应用。

 

德国联邦政府在区块链战略中指出,区块链技术是未来互联网的基石,德国将进一步巩固在该领域的领先地位。为此,联邦政府制定了区块链战略实施指导原则和路线图。

 

德国政府表示将实施旨在促进投资、释放创新力、维护稳定以及能够实现包容性增长、与联邦政府可持续发展目标相契合的管理政策。德国区块链战略的具体实施原则包括促进创新、推动投资、确保稳定、加强可持续力等10项内容。

 

为了抓住区块链技术带来的机遇并发挥其潜力,德国政府计划至2021年底在五个领域采取措施。各领域的重点措施包括:1. 确保稳定、刺激投资:金融领域的区块链技术;2. 孕育创新:推进各类项目和实体实验室建设;3. 开放投资:明确、可信的框架条件;4. 技术应用:数字化管理服务;5. 信息传播:知识、交流与合作。

 

澳大利亚联邦政府对区块链技术进行了多项投资,包括在2018至2019财年向数字化转型机构投入70万澳元,用于研究在政府支付方面使用区块链的益处,并向澳大利亚标准局投入35万澳元,旨在成为国际区块链标准开发的领导者。

 

2019年3月,澳大利亚公布了一项国家区块链路线图战略,该路线图将重点关注一系列政策领域,包括监管、技能和能力建设,以及创新、投资、国际竞争力和合作等。澳大利亚政府相信,国家区块链路线图等政策将帮助澳大利亚在新兴的区块链行业成为全球领导者。

 

对于区块链技术的研究与管控,日本政府在以较为积极但又不失谨慎的态度面对。日本在国家层面积极立法,在严格管控的同时,进一步规范该行业,如在一些大型金融、物流领域以及商家,实现了初期对区块链技术的应用和数字货币的流通。

 

区块链应用场景正在各国加速落地

 

看似高大上的区块链技术,其实正在走进人们的日常生活。

 

从炒作到现实。随着区块链对业务流程的重塑,区块链正成为企业技术创新的核心部分。美国技术巨头IBM早在研究上投入了超过2亿美元。Facebook特别成立了子公司Calibra,为Libra开发转款、支付等服务。

 

美国区块链技术应用正呈现越来越丰富的业态,他们以合法的行业颠覆者形象出现,证明区块链是改变未来的最佳途径。金融业首当其冲。在2019年Facebook高调发加密货币Libra之前,金融业早已经是区块链技术应用的高热地带。

 

位于丹佛市的盐贷款(SALT)从2016年开始区块链贷款业务,SALT宣扬它的安全,自动化借贷技术为基于成员资格的借贷提供了一个平台,使借贷者能够利用其加密货币来担保现金贷款,同时为投资者提供机会以间接方式接触加密货币市场。盐贷款的平台允许用户利用其加密货币进行现金贷款,借款人可以锁定1-36个月的现金贷款,可在美国大部分州和多个国家使用,贷款起价为5,000美元。盐贷款的高级产品经理是来自于美国老牌的运通公司的詹妮·谢佛觉得区块链的运用空间无限深广。“这个空间是敞开的,我们的业务还只是在表面。”她说,分散账本技术与智能合约和令牌化资产相结合带来无限的可能性,并将改变数据,资产(包括现实世界和数字资产)的保SALT存,传输和生成方式。

 

从地缘来看,更多的区块链企业诞生于科技发源地加州旧金山湾区和硅谷地带,技术更成熟、应用更广泛、市场更追捧成为他们的特点,不少公司已经拥有大批知名品牌客服群。旧金山的 Coinbase主打一数字产品组合,可让用户购买和出售加密货币。该公司的技术通过重复购买和库保护等功能使购买和管理加密货币变得容易。2012年以来,Coinbase的交易额超过1500亿美元,超过2000万人。

 

同样扎根于旧金山的Ripple是一个使用区块链在全球范围内汇款的支付网络。美国运通,BBVA和BMO等国际金融机构都在使用Ripple平台在其安全的区块链网络上处理和发送付款。

 

安全一直是考量的底线。加州伯克利的Oasis Labs是运行在区块链上的隐私优先的云计算平台。Oasis创建了智能合约,在分散式信任和隐私保护产品中提供了多种选择。

 

随着区块链技术应用场景的不断增多,日本区块链应用也逐渐走向实用。

 

在区块链应用上日本率先试水,但是也是最早经历损失的国家之一。日本承认数字货币为合法的支付手段,但是在2014年,当时世界最大比特币交易所的MTGOX有75万比特币和自身保有的10万比特币丢失。同时,该公司保管客户存款的账户余额也缺少了28亿日元。由于比特币和存款的丢失,MTGOX的负债激增,导致其陷入经营破产。此事件让日本监管部门立即收紧对数字货币和区块链的监管,一度终止对加密货币交易所发放经营牌照,这造成日本在区块链技术的发展落后于其它一些发达国家。虽然日本金融厅一直在探讨如何对数字货币进行管理,但直到2016年,日本政府才重新重视区块链发展。现在,日本政府允许数字货币交易,但监管体系十分严格。日本政府加强监管数字货币,旨在防止数字货币被用作恐怖组织资金,保护交易者权益及防范数字货币被用于洗钱等违法行为。据统计,一般社团法人日本数字货币交易业协会登记在案拥有加密货币交易所牌照的公司目前一共有20家。

 

日本金融巨头纷纷在交易所、投资银行、跨境支付等领域布局区块链技术。日本某知名投资公司商务拓展负责人杨仁济告诉记者,除了日本政府,日本企业也开始逐渐重视区块链技术,如雅虎、乐天、三菱UFJ银行、瑞穗银行、三井住友银行等大型企业都对该领域有所涉足。其中三菱UFJ银行和瑞穗银行都在内部推出了自己的稳定币,该数字货币与法定货币相对应,与价值不断波动的比特币相比,拥有稳定性高、风险系数低等特点。杨仁济介绍,目前,区块链的技术主要应用在金融、IT以及物流领域,其中几家大型IT公司也都在加密货币交易所有所布局。杨仁济介绍,日本在区块链的相关法律法规方面很早就开始了管理,在亚洲属于最早立法的国家,到现在规范已经十分严格了。他说,区块链的应用技术较为广泛,目前数字货币是最多使用区块链技术的,但是诸如大数据采集、数据存储方面,未来也会越来越多使用到区块链技术。

 

“区块链为澳大利亚企业发展和增长就业提供巨大机会,澳大利亚需要抓住区块链带来的机遇。”澳大利亚工业、科学和技术部长卡伦·安德鲁斯曾表示。

 

数据显示,与区块链相关的澳大利亚初创企业比例已从2016年的3.4%上升至8.1%。区块链是澳大利亚创造就业计划的一部分,自2013年以来,该领域已为澳大利亚创造超过125万个工作机会。

 

2019年4月,澳大利亚联邦科学与工业研究组织的Data61部门已经跻身全球顶级区块链研究机构之列。全球30篇被引用最多的区块链研究论文中,有五篇出自Data61。

 

此外,澳大利亚在众多领域实行了领先的区块链计划,包括能源、金融业、房地产、医疗产业、农业等,还有不少机构或学校开设了区块链咨询和培训服务。

 

区块链热潮下的冷思考 应用还有很长路要走

 

区块链概念的热潮下,引发了全球越来越多的专家、学者和业内人士的思考,探讨它给社会带来的变化、影响以及可能面临的风险。

 

普华永道的一项调研提出,从业务的角度看,将区块链技术视为一种下一代业务流程改进软件是有帮助的。金融机构正在探索如何使用区块链技术颠覆从清算,结算到保险的一切事务。

 

美国众议院金融服务委员会的帕特里克·麦克亨利(Patrick McHenry)将比特币描述为一支“不可阻挡的力量”,恳请监管机构鼓励美国数字货币领域的创新,不应该试图阻止这种创新,政府也不能停止这种创新。他强调,鉴于美国“停滞的经济”,有必要鼓励和促进创新。

 

杨仁济认为,现在的区块链技术还未得到更进一步的发展,状态很像90年代没有宽带、4G、5G技术的互联网,导致区块链并未获得很好的应用,现在最广泛地应用仍停留在比特币为主的数字货币上,即便如此,每秒可以确认的比特币交易也都在10个以下,这与信用卡每秒的几十万次的交易比微不足道。但是他相信,随着逐渐完善,区块链会像互联网一样,最终会成为一项基础设施,直接实现价值的交换。简单说,就是未来区块链会与互联网共同存在,在即便没有网络的情况下也可以实现价值的交换,比如可以用个人在社会中的“信用分数”直接消费。  

 

未来,区块链在技术研究、产业应用、监管服务方面都还有很长的路要走。

 

(责任编辑:贾文婷)

 

Blockchain is an invisible virtual technology that has the power to disrupt The Times. Its value lies not only in supporting the virtual currency along the way, but also in spilling over into finance and technology, demonstrating the era of reshaping the world and perhaps even leading the transition from the information Internet to the value Internet.


The political bureau of the communist party of China (CPC) central committee held its 18th group study on the status and trend of block chain technology on oct 24. General secretary xi jinping stressed that the integrated application of block chain technology plays an important role in new technological innovation and industrial transformation when he presided over the study. We should take blockchain as an important breakthrough in independent innovation of core technologies, make clear the main direction of attack, increase input, focus on a number of key core technologies, and accelerate the innovation and development of blockchain technology and industry.


Owning blockchain technology can change the world, and countries are looking forward to taking the lead in the blockchain era.

 

Countries have raised blockchain to a national strategic level


Blockchain, a revolution in the global industry based on the technological revolution, is sweeping across all industries, and countries have raised blockchain to a national strategic level.


On July 9, 2019, the us senate committee on commerce, science and transportation approved the blockchain promotion act. The bill explicitly requires the U.S. department of commerce to establish a standard definition for "blockchain" as well as a new legal framework to guide future applications of emerging technologies and prevent risks. Got support from both parties "block chain promotion law", which proves that the members of the two major U.S. political parties have realized the block chain technology can bring to the United States and other parts of the world's value, either by preventing tax fraud, eliminate bureaucracy or reduce waste, and how to use technology to reduce regulatory uncertainty.


After the block chain promotion act issued by U.S. commerce secretary Wilbur Ross (Wilbur Ross) within the ministry of commerce has set up a chain block group, group members of the "across departments" by federal agencies and interest groups from block chain technology related industry representatives, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and consumer rights advocates representatives. Their task is to report to congress within a year of the block chain promotion act. The report will include recommendations on the definition of "blockchain technology" and suggest potential applications in the study of distributed ledger technology, including blockchain applications that could improve the efficiency of us federal agencies.


Germany's federal government has pointed out in its blockchain strategy that blockchain technology is the cornerstone of the future Internet, and Germany will further consolidate its leading position in this field. To this end, the federal government has formulated the block chain strategy implementation guidelines and roadmap.


The German government says it will implement management policies aimed at promoting investment, unleashing innovation, maintaining stability and achieving inclusive growth in line with the federal government's sustainable development goals. The specific implementation principles of Germany's blockchain strategy include promoting innovation, promoting investment, ensuring stability and strengthening sustainability.


To seize the opportunities presented by blockchain technology and realize its potential, the German government plans to take measures in five areas by the end of 2021. Key measures in various fields include: 1. Ensure stability and stimulate investment: blockchain technology in the financial sector; 2. 2. Foster innovation: promote the construction of various projects and physical laboratories; 3. Open investment: clear and credible framework conditions; 4. Technology application: digital management service; 5. Information dissemination: knowledge, communication and cooperation.


The federal government has made a number of investments in blockchain technology, including a $700,000 investment in the digital transformation agency in fy2018-2019 to study the benefits of using blockchain in government payments, and a $350,000 investment in the Australian bureau of standards, aiming to become a leader in the development of international blockchain standards.


In March 2019, Australia unveiled a national blocklink map strategy that will focus on a range of policy areas, including regulation, skills and capacity building, as well as innovation, investment, international competitiveness and cooperation. The Australian government believes policies such as the national blockchain map will help Australia become a global leader in the emerging blockchain industry.


For the block chain technology research and control, the Japanese government in a more active but cautious attitude. Japan has made active legislation at the national level to further regulate the industry while strictly controlling it, such as the application of block chain technology and the circulation of digital currency at the initial stage in some large financial and logistics fields and businesses.

 

Blockchain applications are accelerating across countries


Block chain technology, which seems to be on a high level, is actually entering People's Daily life.


From hype to reality. With the reshaping of business processes by blockchain, blockchain is becoming a core part of enterprise technological innovation. IBM, an American technology giant, has already spent more than $200m on research. In particular, Facebook created a subsidiary, Calibra, to develop transfer, payment and other services for Libra.


The application of blockchain technology in the United States is presenting more and more diversified formats. They appear as legitimate industry disruptors, proving that blockchain is the best way to change the future. The financial sector bears the brunt. Even before Facebook launched crypto-currency Libra in 2019, the financial industry was already a hot zone for blockchain applications.


Located in Denver, SALT loans (SALT) block chain loan business since 2016, SALT proclaim its security and automation of borrowing technology based on membership borrowing provides a platform, to guarantee that borrowers can use its encryption currency cash loans, at the same time provide investors with the opportunity to contact encryption money market in indirect way. Salt's platform allows users to make cash loans in its cryptocurrency, with borrowers locking in cash loans for 1-36 months, available in most U.S. states and multiple countries, starting at $5,000. Jenny schaeffer, senior product manager at salt loans, a veteran American express company, thinks blockchain has a lot of potential. "The space is open, and our business is only on the surface." She says the combination of the decentralized ledger technology with smart contracts and tokked assets offers unlimited possibilities and will change the way data and assets, both real and digital, are stored, transmitted and generated.


Geographically, more blockchain companies were born in the San Francisco bay area and silicon valley, the birthplace of technology. They are characterized by more mature technology, wider application and more popular market. Many companies have a large number of customer service groups of well-known brands. Coinbase, based in San Francisco, features a portfolio of digital products that allow users to buy and sell cryptocurrency. The company's technology makes it easy to buy and manage cryptocurrencies through features such as repeat purchases and library protection. Since 2012, Coinbase has generated more than $150 billion in transactions and more than 20 million people.


Ripple, also based in San Francisco, is a payment network that USES blockchain to send money around the world. International financial institutions such as American express, BBVA and BMO are all using Ripple to process and send payments on their secure blockchain network.


Safety has always been the bottom line. Oasis Labs in Berkeley, California, is a privacy-first cloud computing platform running on a blockchain. Oasis creates smart contracts that offer a variety of options in decentralized trust and privacy protection products.


With the increasing application scenarios of block chain technology, block chain applications in Japan are gradually becoming practical. Japan was the first country to test the waters on blockchain applications, but it was also one of the first to experience losses. Japan recognizes digital currencies as legitimate means of payment, but in 2014 MTGOX, then the world's largest bitcoin exchange, lost 750,000 bitcoins and 100,000 of its own. At the same time, the company's account balance, which holds customer deposits, was also short of y2.8bn. As bitcoin and deposits disappeared, MTGOX's debt ballooned, sending it into operational bankruptcy. The incident prompted Japanese regulators to immediately tighten regulation of digital currencies and blockchain, and temporarily stopped issuing licences for cryptocurrency exchanges, leaving Japan behind other developed countries in the development of blockchain technology. While Japan's financial services agency has been discussing how to manage digital currencies, it wasn't until 2016 that the government refocused on blockchain development. The government now allows transactions in digital currencies, but the regulatory system is tight. The Japanese government has stepped up monitoring of digital currencies in an effort to prevent them from being used as funds for terrorist groups, protect the rights of traders and prevent them from being used for illegal activities such as money laundering. According to statistics, Japan digital currency exchange association, a general corporate entity, has registered a total of 20 companies with cryptocurrency exchange licenses.


Japanese financial giants are laying out blockchain technology in exchanges, investment Banks, cross-border payments and other fields. Yang renji, head of business development at a well-known Japanese investment company, told reporters that in addition to the Japanese government, Japanese companies have also begun to pay more attention to blockchain technology, such as yahoo, rakuten, mitsubishi UFJ, mizuho bank, sumitomo mitsui bank and other large enterprises are involved in this field. Among them, bank of mitsubishi UFJ and bank of mizuho have both launched their own stable currency internally. This digital currency corresponds to legal tender and has the characteristics of high stability and low risk compared with bitcoin whose value keeps fluctuating. Currently, blockchain technology is mainly used in the fields of finance, IT and logistics, with several large IT companies also laying out in cryptocurrency exchanges, Yang said. Yang renji introduced that Japan started to manage relevant laws and regulations on blockchain very early, and it was the earliest country to legislate in Asia, and the regulations have been very strict up to now. Blockchain technology is widely used, he said. At present, digital currency is the most widely used blockchain technology, but such as big data collection and data storage, blockchain technology will be increasingly used in the future.


"Blockchain provides a huge opportunity for Australian companies to develop and grow jobs, and Australia needs to seize this opportunity." Australia's minister of industry, science and technology Karen Andrews has said. The proportion of Australian start-ups linked to blockchain has risen from 3.4 per cent in 2016 to 8.1 per cent, according to the data. Blockchain is part of Australia's job creation initiative, which has created more than 1.25 million jobs in the sector since 2013.


In April 2019, Data61, a division of the commonwealth scientific and industrial research organisation, was already among the world's top blockchain research institutions. Of the 30 most cited blockchain research papers in the world, five are from Data61.


In addition, Australia has implemented the leading blockchain plan in many fields, including energy, finance, real estate, medical industry, agriculture, etc., and many institutions or schools have opened blockchain consulting and training services.

 

The blockchain craze has a long way to go


The upsurge of blockchain concept has triggered the thinking of more and more experts, scholars and insiders around the world to discuss the changes, impacts and possible risks it brings to the society.


A study by pricewaterhousecoopers suggests that from a business perspective, it is helpful to view blockchain as the next generation of business process improvement software. Financial institutions are exploring how to use blockchain technology to disrupt everything from clearing and settlement to insurance.


Patrick McHenry of the us house of representatives financial services committee described bitcoin as an "unstoppable force" and pleaded with regulators to encourage innovation in the us digital currency sector that should not be tried to stop and that the government should not stop. He stressed the need to encourage and promote innovation given the us's "stagnant economy".


Yang Renji think, now block chain technology has not been further development, the state is like a 90 s no, 4 g, 5 g technology of broadband Internet, lead to block chain did not get very good application, now the most widely used is still in the currency based on the digital currency, even so, a second can confirm that the currency trading is below 10, with the credit card transaction of hundreds of thousands of times per second than insignificant. But he believes that as it gets better, blockchain, like the Internet, will eventually become an infrastructure for the direct exchange of value. To put it simply, blockchain will co-exist with the Internet in the future, and value exchange can be realized even without the network, such as direct consumption with the "credit score" of individuals in the society.


In the future, blockchain has a long way to go in technology research, industrial application and regulatory services.

(昨日财经夜读编译)

 
 
    原作者: 邓圩、张悦、施维、李沐航、王泉骄、贾文婷、吕籽奕(实习生) 来自: 人民网