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中国的核能技术帮助土耳其发展清洁能源

2019-12-18 13:58

(Photo provided by SPIC)

11月24日,土耳其媒体结束了为期一周的中国之行,土耳其Ahaber频道记者参观了上海和山东核电项目,聚焦中国自主研发的CAP1400核电技术和核电站运行安全。

 

根据土耳其政府的数据,该国20%以上的能源需求是由煤电满足的,煤电仍然是土耳其的主要电力来源。然而,它对环境的负面影响也困扰着土耳其。数据显示,每座1gw级核电站每年只需要30吨左右的核燃料,而同等规模的火电厂每年需要燃烧300万吨煤。此外,煤炭燃烧会产生二氧化碳、二氧化硫等气体,对环境造成压力。

 

土耳其气候信息中心和研究公司Konda在2018年进行的一项民意调查显示,大多数土耳其人担心气候变化。在这方面,核能作为一种高效、清洁的能源,正逐渐受到土耳其的重视。近年来,中国一直致力于改善国内能源供应体系,积极发展核电,已建成两座核电站。

 

与此同时,中国核电产业也面临着战略机遇,已经形成了完整、成熟的核电产业体系。中国主要核电装备制造能力和核电站建设能力均居世界首位。中国核能协会专家委员会副主任徐玉明认为,随着世界各地对核能的需求不断增长,中国发展其全球核能产业的时机已经成熟。例如,土耳其能源和自然资源部副部长于2017年率团参观了SPIC总部,与此同时,中国正计划参与土耳其第三座核电站的建设。

 

据官方数据显示,包括中国和土耳其在内的全球约45个国家正在积极考虑推进核能项目。有鉴于此,中国与土耳其在核能领域的合作被提上议程。在2018年10月举行的“一带一路”能源部长会议上,土耳其外长恰武什奥卢表示,土耳其全力支持“一带一路”倡议,并正在努力将其与土耳其的“中间走廊”项目结合起来。“一带一路”倡议与土耳其“中间走廊”项目快速对接,为两国深化核能合作提供了巨大机遇。近日,土耳其驻华大使阿明·奥宁在接受《人民日报海外版》专访时表示,土方希望今后加强与中方在核能领域的合作。

 

8月21日,中国核学会宣布,截至2019年6月底,中国大陆有47个核电机组在运行,装机容量为4873万千瓦,居世界第三位。中国核能学会理事长王守军表示:“中国核电自主创新体系不断完善。”他补充说:“越来越多的关键核电设备和材料在国内生产,其中华龙1号和CAP1400代表了中国最先进的自主研发第三代核电技术。”

 

“SPIC将参与土耳其核电站的建设,并在四个核电机组中采用CAP1400技术,这意味着随着中国先进的核电技术在全球范围内的发展,这将进一步有利于土耳其的能源建设,”SPIC核能部总经理郝洪生说。

 

国家核电技术公司自主研发了具有自主知识产权的CAP1400。是先进的第三代核电技术,发电能力1.5GW。

 

每台核电机组每年可发电11.4 TWh。一个核电基地的年发电量,包括八个CAP1400核电机组,几乎相当于三峡水电站。

 

虽然核能是高效和环保的,但由于缺乏了解,公众仍然担心它的安全性。为了消除公众的疑虑,Ahaber Channel媒体团队深入了解了中国CAP1400技术的运行原理,并考察了核安全的有效保障。

作为运行中的最新一代核反应堆,CAP1400对生产安全和经济提出了更高的要求。断电时采用无源系统。反应堆可以在事故发生后的72小时内自动确保安全,无需人工干预。与此同时,CAP1400采用被动安全系统,提高电站应对极端自然灾害的能力,如地震和外部洪水。整个电站和主要设备的使用寿命为60年。此外,它比过去的几代更容易操作和维护。

 

2016年,国家发展改革委、国家能源局联合发布了《电力发展“十三五”规划》,提出到2020年,中国核电运营和装机容量将达到88GW。同年,中土核能合作也迎来新的机遇。随着土耳其正式宣布与中国开展和平利用核能合作,《中土核能合作协定》正式生效。

 

三年来,中国核电技术不断发展,这些技术和安全理念也将通过合作进入土耳其。正如郝所说,中国参与土耳其核电站建设将进一步满足土耳其对清洁能源的需求,两国能源公司的合作也将在就业和税收方面造福当地人民。

 

A media team from Turkey concluded its one-week trip to China on Nov. 24, 2019, during which time journalists from the Turkish Ahaber Channel visited SPIC’s Shanghai and Shandong nuclear power projects, focusing on China’s independent CAP1400 nuclear power technology and nuclear power plant operation safety.

According to data from the Turkish government, more than 20 percent of the country's total energy demand is satisfied by coal power, which remains the primary source of electricity in Turkey. However, its negative impact on the environment also plagues Turkey. Data shows that each 1GW-class nuclear power plant only needs about 30 tonnes of nuclear fuel each year, while a thermal power station of the same size has to burn 3 million tonnes of coal each year. In addition, coal combustion brings emissions of CO2, SO2 and other gases, which puts pressure on the environment.

A poll conducted in 2018 by Konda, a climate information center and research company in Turkey, showed that most Turks were worried about climate change. In this context, as an efficient and clean energy source, nuclear power is gradually receiving attention in Turkey. In recent years, the country, which has been working to improve the domestic energy supply system, is actively developing nuclear power and has already built two nuclear power plants.

Meanwhile, in China, the nuclear power industry is facing strategic opportunities as a complete and mature nuclear power industry system has been established. China’s capacities for both major nuclear power equipment manufacturing and nuclear power plant construction are first in the world. Xu Yuming, Deputy Director of the Expert Committee of the China Nuclear Energy Association, believes that it is the right time for China to develop its global nuclear power industry, as the demand for nuclear power is growing around the world. For instance, the Vice Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Department of Turkey led a delegation to visit SPIC’s headquarter in 2017, at the same time as China was planning to participate in the construction of Turkey’s third nuclear power plant.

According to official data, some 45 countries worldwide, including China and Turkey, are now actively considering the promotion of nuclear energy projects. In light of this, China-Turkey cooperation in nuclear energy has been added to the agenda. At the “Belt and Road” Energy Ministerial Conference in October 2018, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu stated that Turkey fully supports the “Belt and Road” Initiative and is trying to integrate it with Turkey’s “Middle Corridor” Project. The fast dovetailing of the “Belt and Road” Initiative and Turkey’s “Middle Corridor” Project provides a huge opportunity for the two countries to deepen their nuclear energy cooperation. Recently, in an exclusive interview with People’s Daily Overseas Edition, the Turkish Ambassador to China Emin Onen expressed that Turkey hopes to strengthen cooperation with China in nuclear power in the future.

(Photo provided by SPIC)

On August 21, the Chinese Nuclear Society announced that by the end of June 2019, the Chinese mainland had 47 nuclear power units in operation with an installed capacity of 48.73GW, ranking third in the world. “China’s independent innovation system for nuclear power has been continuously improved,” said Wang Shoujun, Chairman of the Chinese Nuclear Society. “A growing proportion of key nuclear power equipment and materials are produced domestically, with Hualong-1 and CAP1400 representing China’s most advanced self-developed 3rd-generation nuclear power technology,” he added.

“SPIC will participate in the construction of Turkish NPPs and adopt CAP1400 technology to four nuclear power units, which means that as China’s advanced nuclear power technology is growing globally, it will further benefit Turkey’s energy construction,” said Hao Hongsheng, General Manager of the SPIC Nuclear Energy Department.

The State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation developed CAP1400 with independent intellectual property rights. It is an advanced third-generation nuclear power technology with a power generation capacity of 1.5GW.

Each nuclear power unit can generate 11.4 TWh per year. The annual power generation of a nuclear power base, which contains eight CAP1400 nuclear power units, is almost equivalent to the Three Gorges hydropower station.

Although nuclear power is efficient and environmentally friendly, there is still public concern about its safety due to a lack of understanding. In order to dispel public doubt, the Ahaber Channel media team made an in-depth visit to the nuclear power plant to learn the operating principles of China’s CAP1400 technology, and inspected how nuclear safety was effectively guaranteed.

As the latest generation of nuclear reactors in operation, CAP1400 has much higher requirements for production safety and economy. It adopts a passive system when under power outage conditions. Reactors can automatically ensure safety without manual intervention in the 72 hours after an accident. At the same time, CAP1400 applies passive safety systems to increase the power station’s ability against extreme natural disasters, such as earthquakes and external flooding. The overall power station and main equipment have a 60-year lifespan. Moreover, it is easier to operate and maintain than past generations.

In 2016, China’s National Development and Reform Commission and National Energy Administration jointly released the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” for Power Development, which proposed that China’s nuclear power operation and installed capacity will reach 88GW by 2020. In the same year, China-Turkey nuclear power cooperation also embraced new opportunities. As Turkey officially announced the cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy with China, the China-Turkey nuclear energy cooperation agreement formally entered into force.

In the past three years, China’s nuclear power technology has continuously developed, and these technologies and safety concepts will also enter into Turkey through cooperation. As Hao said, China’s participation in the construction of Turkish nuclear power plants will further meet Turkey’s demands for clean energy, and the cooperation between energy companies of the two countries will also benefit local people in terms of employment and taxation. 

原作者: Gou Yawen 来自: people's daily