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美国联邦储备委员会将利率维持在接近零的水平,预计2022年之前不会有任何利率变化

2020-6-11 11:15

 

这张照片拍摄于2020年6月10日,现场直播了美国联邦储备委员会主席杰罗姆·鲍威尔在华盛顿举行的新闻发布会上的讲话。周三,美国联邦储备委员会(Federal Reserve)将基准利率维持在接近零的历史最低水平,以应对新冠肺炎引发的经济衰退带来的日益严重的影响,并预计利率至少在2022年之前都将维持在目前的水平。(新华社/刘杰)


新华社华盛顿6月10日电(记者洪小雷)在新冠肺炎疫情的影响下,美国联邦储备委员会10日宣布,美联储基准利率维持在接近零的历史最低水平,并预计至少到2022年将维持在当前水平。


美联储决策机构联邦公开市场委员会(Federal Open Market Committee)在结束为期两天的会议后发表声明称,“近期内,持续的公共卫生危机将严重影响经济活动、就业和通胀,并对中期内的经济前景构成相当大的风险。”


声明称,鉴于这些发展,委员会决定将联邦基金利率的目标区间维持在0 - 0.25%。


周三下午,美联储主席杰罗姆·鲍威尔(Jerome Powell)在一场虚拟的新闻发布会上说:“病毒和为控制其传播而采取的有力措施导致经济活动急剧下降,失业人数激增。”


" 4月支出和生产指标大幅下滑,当前季度实际国内生产总值(GDP)降幅可能是有记录以来最严重的," Powell说。


他指出,即使在5月就业报告出乎意料地乐观之后,自2月以来仍有近2,000万个工作岗位净流失。他补充说,失业率上升对低收入工人、妇女、非洲裔美国人和西班牙裔美国人尤其严重。


Powell表示,近几周的一些指标显示,零售商品和汽车销售等经济领域出现企稳甚至温和反弹,且失业率小幅下降,因部分工人结束临时裁员,重返工作岗位。


在美联储召开政策会议之前,美国国家经济研究局(NBER)星期一宣布,美国经济在2月份正式进入衰退,结束了美国历史上最长的经济扩张。


美联储星期三在另一份声明中预测,美国经济在2020年将收缩6.5%,明年将增长5%。


鲍威尔对记者说,这些经济预测是在普遍预期的情况下做出的,即经济复苏将在今年下半年开始,并将持续几年。


他还表达了他对数百万美国人可能在这场危机中永久失业的担忧。根据美联储的经济预测,到今年年底,失业率可能降至9.3%。


美联储还预计,利率至少在2022年之前都将保持在接近零的水平,因为政策制定者努力支持经济从covid -19引发的衰退中复苏。


鲍威尔说:“经济衰退的程度和复苏的速度仍然非常不确定,这将在很大程度上取决于我们能否成功遏制病毒。”“全面复苏不太可能发生,除非人们确信,重新从事广泛的活动是安全的。”


伯南克说,美国经济很可能在很长一段时间内都需要更多的财政和货币支持,暗示国会可以采取更多措施来帮助失业者和小企业主。


美联储在3月的两次非正式会议上将利率降至接近零,并开始购买大量美国公债和机构抵押贷款支持证券,以修复金融市场。它还公布了新的贷款计划,提供高达2.3万亿美元以支持经济以应对疫情。


鲍威尔说,正在进行的购买美国国债和机构抵押贷款支持证券帮助恢复了有序的市场环境,并培育了更宽松的金融环境。


他表示:“自3月份出现压力以来,市场运作有所改善,我们已逐渐放慢购买这些债券的步伐。”他同时指出,美联储将在未来几个月至少按照目前的速度增持美国国债和机构抵押贷款支持证券。

 

Photo taken on June 10, 2020 shows the live broadcast of U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell's address during a press conference in Washington D.C., the United States. The U.S. Federal Reserve on Wednesday kept its benchmark interest rate unchanged at the record-low level of near zero amid mounting fallout from the COVID-19-induced recession, and projected interest rates to remain at the current level through at least 2022. (Xinhua/Liu Jie)

WASHINGTON, June 10 (Xinhua) -- The U.S. Federal Reserve on Wednesday kept its benchmark interest rate unchanged at the record-low level of near zero amid mounting fallout from the COVID-19-induced recession, and projected interest rates to remain at the current level through at least 2022.

"The ongoing public health crisis will weigh heavily on economic activity, employment, and inflation in the near term, and poses considerable risks to the economic outlook over the medium term," the Federal Open Market Committee, the Fed's policy-making body, said in a statement after concluding a two-day meeting.

In light of these developments, the committee decided to maintain the target range for the federal funds rate at 0 to 0.25 percent, the statement read.

"The virus and the forceful measures taken to control its spread have induced a sharp decline in economic activity and a surge in job losses," Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell said in a virtual press conference Wednesday afternoon.

"Indicators of spending and production plummeted in April, and the decline in real GDP in the current quarter is likely to be the most severe on record," Powell said.

Even after the unexpectedly positive May employment report, nearly 20 million jobs have been lost on net since February, he noted, adding that the rise in joblessness has been especially severe for lower-wage workers, for women, and for African Americans and Hispanics.

Powell said some indicators in recent weeks suggest a stabilization or even a modest rebound in some segments of the economy, such as retail merchandise and motor vehicle sales, and the unemployment edged down as some workers returned to their jobs from temporary layoffs.

The central bank's policy meeting followed the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)'s announcement Monday that the U.S. economy officially entered a recession in February, ending the longest expansion in U.S. history.

In a separate statement, the Fed projected Wednesday that the U.S. economy will shrink by 6.5 percent in 2020, followed by a 5-percent gain next year.

Powell told reporters that the economic projections were made with the general expectation that the economic recovery will begin in the second half of the year and last over the next couple of years.

He also voiced his concern that millions of Americans could be permanently unemployed from this crisis. According to the Fed's economic projection, the unemployment rate could fall to 9.3 percent by the end of this year.

The Fed also projected interest rates will remain near zero through at least 2022 as policy makers strive to support the recovery of the economy from the COVID-19-induced recession.

"The extent of the downturn and the pace of recovery remain extraordinarily uncertain and will depend in large part on our success in containing the virus," Powell said. "A full recovery is unlikely to occur until people are confident that it is safe to reengage in a broad range of activities."

The Fed chair said the U.S. economy will likely need more fiscal and monetary support for a long time, suggesting that Congress could do more to help the unemployed and small business owners.

The Fed cut interest rates to near zero at two unscheduled meetings in March and began purchasing massive quantities of U.S. treasuries and agency mortgage-backed securities to repair financial markets. It also unveiled new lending programs to provide up to 2.3 trillion U.S. dollars to support the economy in response to the outbreak.

Powell said the ongoing purchases of treasuries and agency mortgage-backed securities have helped to restore orderly market conditions, and have fostered more accommodative financial conditions.

"As market functioning has improved since the strains experienced in March, we have gradually reduced the pace of these purchases," he said, while noting that the central bank will increase holdings of Treasury and agency mortgage-backed securities over coming months at least at the current pace.

 

来自: xinhua