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超级账本的变化:IBM不再占据主导地位,英特尔退步

2020-10-14 15:36

 

企业区块链技术的开源社区Hyperledger今天宣布了其技术指导委员会选举的结果。在即将离任的委员会中,11名成员中有5名来自IBM,其中6名来自IBM拥有红帽的公司。该委员会已扩大至15名成员,以反映超总帐伞下的16个企业区块链项目。


新的委员会成员代表11个组织,之前是7个。包括红帽在内,IBM现在有5名成员,其中2名来自consensus,还有来自沃尔玛、甲骨文和西班牙电话公司的代表。


Brian Behlendorf Hyperledger执行主任,更大的多样性感到满意,尽管他渴望确保IBM的贡献是公认的,说他们之前对TSC的影响力是“相当反光,IBM仍然是最重要的公司之一,使整个Hyperledger工作技术贡献。这不仅仅是在织物上。这涉及到许多不同的项目。他们应该得到应有的赞扬。”


在性别和种族方面,外向的TSC已经是适度多样化的,尽管它几乎完全是北美人。委员会有代表西班牙、印度和中国的新成员。


TSC或许可以被看作是整个超级账本社区的指导委员会,特别是我们如何将各自的努力编织成一个逻辑上的整体。我很高兴能想到明年的表现。”Behlendorf在一份声明中说。


就TSC的角色而言,一个重要的角色是决定哪些项目可以继续或关闭。如果只有少量的项目在TSC中表示,这可能会导致问题。


在过去的几个月里,在这个领域有一些激烈的辩论。Transact是一个超级账本项目,旨在使智能合同语言能够跨多个账本工作,很像Digital Asset的DAML。有人质疑交易是否应该作为一个独立的项目继续下去,这受到了一些阻力。


来自Bitwise的Shawn Amundson是Transact和Sawtooth的关键维护者,他说:“目前唯一的负面影响来自TSC和围绕着讨论的余波。”阿蒙森说:“‘我们应该如何让项目有更多的合作’和‘我们应该取消这个我们不参与的项目’之间有很大的区别。”


谢天谢地,这和Hyperledger的反应一样激烈,人们对这些问题的反应也得到了公平和合理的处理。结果是,Transact仍然是一个独立的项目。有一些关于跨主要的超分类器dll共享组件的争论。


Behlendorf分享了他的相同想法:“如果我们要在区块链显然仍是一个非常漫长的冬天中生存下来,我们都必须更好地在彼此的工作基础上发展,市场上的解决方案很少能生存下来。”我的希望是,至少在Hyperledger有一些这样的账户。”

搭便车者


我们从Hyperledger社区的活跃人士那里听到的另一个抱怨是,没有足够的代码作为开源来共享。


自由职业者问题是固有的(在开源软件中)。我相信随着时间的推移,通过经济利益的协调,这个问题会得到解决。”Behlendorf告诉Ledger Insights。“IBM从纺织业中赚了不少钱,这推动了他们持续的投资。和其他云供应商已经开始看到回报。我相信,因为它的增长和核心业务,他们将别无选择,只能增加他们的投资方向,因为这是唯一的方式获得机构的使用这项技术。这不是短期的。”


Behlendorf详细阐述了贡献代码的公司可以引导项目的方向,称之为“do-ocracy”。


他澄清说,预计公司将利用开源来创造增值解决方案或“独特的价值主张”,这是私有的,并从中获利。但是,可能会有人愿意在同一领域开发开源版本。而这正是私有公司要承担的风险。

英特尔的步骤后


当IBM继续推进Hyperledger Fabric时,2016年英特尔贡献了另一个区块链,Hyperledger Sawtooth。Behnlendorf提到至少有25个项目使用Sawtooth。我们知道一些高调的采纳者,包括嘉吉、塔吉特、Salesforce和特拉维夫证券交易所。

 


然而,目前与嘉吉公司紧密合作的Bitwise是锯齿的主要维护者。而英特尔的丹·米德尔顿,他之前是TSC的成员,没有竞选连任。Behlendorf证实“英特尔已经减少了参与”,他将其归因于对机密计算的兴趣。这家芯片公司正在参与新的机密计算联盟,该联盟是Hyperledger的母公司Linux基金会的一部分。英特尔SGX为安全飞地提供内存加密。这使得处理器能够在操作系统被黑客入侵的情况下保护工作。

COVID的机遇和挑战


与此同时,Behlendorf热衷于强调在身份识别、新冠肺炎直接项目和央行数字货币方面的新动力来源。身份识别是证明最近COVID-19检测呈阴性或未来疫苗接种的一个重要用例。遗憾的是,使用Hyperledger Indy的Sovrin公司在疫情在西方蔓延之前就大幅裁员。我们之前提到的两个与COVID-19相关的项目是Trust Your Supplier和MiPasa。


与此同时,他也承认目前面临着阻力,创新和实验也更加棘手。


超级账本的变化:IBM不再占据领先地位,英特尔退居幕后。Behlendorf说:“这一领域无疑受到我们所处的宏观经济环境的影响。他举了一些例子,比如IBM的食品信托和Tradelens,他说:“但这是非常健康的。我们已经看到,那些能够展示出解决实际问题的解决方案的公司做得很好。”

 

Hyperledger, the open source community for enterprise blockchain technology, today announced the results of its Technical Steering Committee elections. In the outgoing committee, five of eleven members were from IBM, with a sixth from IBM owned Red Hat. The committee has been expanded to 15 members to reflect the 16 enterprise blockchain projects under the Hyperledger umbrella.

The new committee members represent 11 organizations, up from seven. Including Red Hat, IBM now has five members, with two new members from ConsenSys, and representatives from Walmart, Oracle and Telefonica. 

Executive Director of Hyperledger, Brian Behlendorf, was pleased with the greater diversity, although he was keen to ensure IBM’s contribution is recognized, saying their previous influence over the TSC was “fairly reflective of the fact that IBM is still one of the companies that makes the most significant technical contributions to the overall Hyperledger effort. That is not just on Fabric. That is across a number of different projects. And they deserve due credit for that.”

The outgoing TSC was already moderately diverse in terms of gender and ethnicity, although it was almost entirely North American. The committee has new members representing Spain, India and China. 

“The TSC is perhaps better thought of as a steering committee for the whole of the Hyperledger community, particularly how we weave our separate efforts together into a logical whole. I’m excited to think about the next year,” said Behlendorf in a statement.

In terms of the TSC’s roles, an important one is deciding which projects get the go ahead or shutdown. If only a small number of projects are represented on the TSC, that can cause issues. 

There has been some lively debate in this area in the last couple of months. Transact is a Hyperledger project designed to enable smart contract languages to work across multiple ledgers, much like Digital Asset’s DAML. There were questions about whether Transact should continue as a standalone project which received some pushback. 

“The only negativity currently is generated from the TSC and this surrounding discussion fallout,” said Shawn Amundson from Bitwise, a key maintainer of both Transact and Sawtooth. “There is a big difference between ‘how should we get projects to collaborate more’ and ‘we should kill this project we aren’t involved with’,” said Amundson.

Thankfully that’s about as heated as it gets at Hyperledger, with the response to the issues dealt with fairly and logically. The result was Transact is still a standalone project. There was some discussion about the struggles of sharing components across the main Hyperledger DLTs.

Behlendorf shared his thoughts on the same thread: “We all have to get better at building upon each other’s work if we’re going to survive what is clearly still a very long blockchain winter, and very few of the solutions in the market will survive it. My hope is that at least a few of the ones that do are at Hyperledger.”

Free riders

One of the other rumblings we heard from people active in the Hyperledger community was a general comment that not enough code is shared as open source. 

“The Freerider problem is inherent (in open source software). It’s something that I believe gets solved over time through an alignment of economic interests,” Behlendorf told Ledger Insights. “IBM has made quite a bit of money from Fabric and that drives their continued investment. And the other cloud vendors have started to see that pay off. I believe as it increases and becomes more core to their business, they will have no choice but to increase their investment in that direction, because that’s the only way they get agency out of their use of this technology. It’s not a short term play.”

Behlendorf elaborated that the companies that contribute code get to steer a project’s direction, calling it a “do-ocracy”.

He clarified that it’s expected that companies will leverage open source to create added value solutions or ‘unique value propositions’ which are proprietary and from which they make money. However, someone may come along that is willing to develop an open source version in the same area. And that’s a risk the proprietary company takes.

Intel steps back

While IBM continues to move forward with Hyperledger Fabric, in 2016 Intel contributed another blockchain, Hyperledger Sawtooth. Behnlendorf mentioned there are at least 25 projects using Sawtooth. We’re aware of some high profile adopters, including CargillTargetSalesforce and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange.

However, currently Bitwise which works closely with Cargill is the primary maintainer of Sawtooth. And Intel’s Dan Middleton, who was previously on the TSC did not stand for re-election. Behlendorf confirmed that “Intel has dialed down its involvement,” which he attributed to its interest in confidential computing. The chip company is participating in the new Confidential Computing Consortium, which is part of the Linux Foundation, Hyperledger’s parent. Intel SGX provides memory encryption for secure enclaves. These enable processors to ring-fence work out of reach of a hacked operating system. 

COVID’s opportunities and challenges

Meanwhile, Behlendorf was keen to highlight new sources of momentum in terms of identity, direct COVID-19 projects and central bank digital currencies. Identity is an important use case for proving a recent negative COVID-19 test or, in future, a vaccination. It was a shame that Sovrin, which uses Hyperledger Indy, radically cut staff right before the pandemic took hold in the West. Two COVID-19 related projects we’ve previously written about are Trust Your Supplier and MiPasa.

At the same time, he acknowledged the headwinds and that innovation and experimentation are trickier. 

Change at Hyperledger: IBM no longer dominates leadership, Intel steps back“This space is no doubt influenced by this macroeconomic climate that we’re in,” said Behlendorf. He gave examples such as IBM’s Food Trust and Tradelens when he said “but it’s very healthy. We’ve seen the companies that are able to demonstrate their solutions to solid real prosaic problems doing well. ” 

 

来自: Ledger Insights