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欧洲央行就发布数字欧元展开公众咨询

2020-10-15 13:41

两周前,欧洲央行发布了关于数字欧元的报告,称将在2021年年中决定是否继续推进该项目。现在,它已经就这个话题展开了公众咨询。


另外,国际清算银行(BIS)与七家央行联合发布了关于央行数字货币(CBDC)的报告。


我们注意到,国际清算银行的报告提出了如何为可能要收费的CBDC支付费用的问题,以及在覆盖成本的背景下,是否“允许访问消费者数据”。换句话说,它是否会出售数据来弥补成本。


这些问题在欧洲央行的磋商中再次出现。


欧洲央行的调查要求参与者从一长串九项中选择CBDC功能。然而,这些“功能”中的一些会被认为是理所当然的,因此真正的问题可能会被排在次要、隐藏或误解的位置。


例如,大多数人可能会认为,数字欧元使用起来容易、安全,而且在整个欧元区都可以使用。会有人用不安全的吗?他们可能还希望它能在智能手机和支付终端上使用。除去这些问题,剩下的五个问题更容易处理。

两个有争议的问题


这个简短的列表聚焦于三个真正的功能查询和两个有争议的问题。


有争议的问题:


我希望我的报酬仍然是私事

我想使用数字欧元而不需要支付额外费用


大多数人可能会认为,除了反洗钱(AML)或税收之外,付款将是私人的。特别是考虑到前面提到的四个必要特性,隐私问题可能是理所当然的。


所有审查CBDC的央行都在考虑,政府在什么情况下可以偷看这些交易。毕竟,实物现金是完全私有的。


然而,如果你要问公众关于隐私的问题,也许有必要更明确地说明你的意思。因为与政府共享用于“反洗钱”或税务监控的数据与与企业共享交易是两码事。根据国际清算银行的报告,一些央行也在考虑后者。


然而,欧洲央行执委会成员法比奥•帕内塔在一次演讲中指出,“由于央行的参与,数字欧元将增加数字支付的隐私。与私人支付服务供应商不同,央行没有与消费者数据相关的商业利益。”


声明一下,除了这两个有争议的问题,真正的特性查询是:


我希望能够支付,即使没有互联网或电力连接

我希望我的交易立即完成

我希望它采取一个专用的物理设备的形式


许多央行都认为,如果CBDC系统不能离线运行,那么它就不可能存在,但这仍然是一个有效的问题。

 

 

Two weeks ago, the European Central Bank published its report on the digital Euro, which said it would decide whether to proceed with a project by mid-2021. Now it has launched a public consultation on the topic. 

Separately, a Bank for International Settlement (BIS) publication on central bank digital currencies (CBDC) in conjunction with seven central banks was published last week.

We noted that the BIS report floated the issue of how to pay for a CBDC, who might be charged, and in the context of covering costs, whether “allowing access to consumer data is permitted.” In other words, whether it might sell data to cover costs.

These issues have cropped up again in the ECB consultation.

The ECB survey asks participants to rank CBDC feature choices from a long list of nine items. However, some of these ‘features’ would be taken for granted, and hence the real issues could end up being ranked as less important, hidden, or misunderstood.

For example, most people might assume that a digital euro would be easy to use, secure and be usable throughout the euro area. Would anyone use an insecure one? They’d probably also expect it to be available on a smartphone and at payment terminals. Removing these items leaves a more manageable list of five questions.

Two contentious questions

The shorter list throws a spotlight onto three true feature queries and two contentious issues.

The contentious questions:

  • I want my payments to remain a private matter
  • I want to use a digital euro without having to pay additional costs

Most people might assume payments would be private other than perhaps for anti money laundering (AML) or tax. Especially given the inclusion of the four previously mentioned required features, the privacy question might be taken for granted.

All central banks examining CBDC are considering under what circumstances the government gets to peek at the transactions. After all, physical cash is entirely private.

However, if you’re going to ask the public about privacy, perhaps there’s a need to be more explicit about what you mean. Because sharing data with the government for AML or tax surveillance and sharing your transactions with businesses are two different things. And based on the BIS report, the latter IS also being considered by some central banks.

However, Fabio Panetta, an ECB board member, noted in a
speech that “a digital euro would increase privacy in digital payments thanks to the involvement of the central bank, which – unlike private suppliers of payment services – has no commercial interests related to consumer data.”

For the record, apart from the two contentious issues, the true feature queries are:

  • I want to be able to pay even when there is no internet or power connection
  • I want my transactions to be completed instantaneously
  • I want it to take the form of a dedicated physical device

Many central banks have argued you cannot have a CBDC system without it working offline, but it’s still a valid question.

 

来自: Ledger Insights